The printed circuit board (PCB) assembly process involves multiple stages to transform a bare PCB into a functional electronic device. These stages can be broadly categorized into pre-assembly, during assembly, and final assembly.

PCB Assembly: Printed Circuit Boards Assembly (PCBA) Process, pcb assembly process, electronic components, surface mount components


  1. Design and Prototyping: This stage begins with the design of the PCB, where engineers create a schematic and layout for the circuit. Prototyping may involve producing a small batch of PCBs for testing and validation before full-scale production.
  2. Material Procurement: Once the design is finalized, the necessary materials are procured, including the PCBs, electronic components, solder paste, and other consumables.
  3. Stencil Production: In surface mount technology (SMT) assembly, a stencil is created for applying solder paste to the PCB. This stencil is designed based on the PCB layout and is crucial for accurate solder paste deposition.
  4. Component Inspection: Components are inspected for quality and correctness before assembly begins. This may involve verifying that the correct components are present, checking for any defects, and ensuring they meet specified tolerances.

During Assembly:

  1. Solder Paste Application: Solder paste is applied to the PCB using a stencil. This paste acts as a medium for attaching surface mount components.
  2. Component Placement: Automated pick-and-place machines accurately position electronic components on the PCB based on the design layout. This step is crucial for achieving the correct electrical connections between components and the PCB.
  3. Reflow Soldering: The PCB, now populated with components and solder paste, goes through a reflow soldering process. In this process, the PCB is heated to a temperature that melts the solder paste, creating solder joints and securing the components to the PCB.
  4. Through-Hole Component Insertion and Wave Soldering: If through-hole components are used, they are inserted into pre-drilled holes, and the PCB undergoes wave soldering. This involves passing the PCB over a molten solder wave, which creates solder joints on the through-hole components.

Final Assembly:

  1. Cleaning: After soldering, the PCB undergoes a cleaning process to remove any flux residues or contaminants from the assembly.
  2. Inspection: The assembled PCB is inspected for defects using various methods, including automated optical inspection (AOI) and X-ray inspection. This ensures the quality of solder joints, component placement, and overall assembly.
  3. Functional Testing: In some cases, the assembled PCB may undergo functional testing to verify that it meets performance and functionality requirements.
  4. Packaging and Shipping: Once the assembly is confirmed to be of high quality and meets specifications, the PCBs are packaged and prepared for shipment to end-users or further assembly stages in the manufacturing process.

These three stages represent a comprehensive overview of the PCB assembly process, from the initial design and material procurement to electro mechanical assembly to the final inspection and testing of the assembled electronic device.

PCB Assembly: Printed Circuit Boards Assembly (PCBA) Process, pcb assembly process, electronic components, surface mount components

PCB Design Basics

Schematic Diagram: Begin by creating a schematic diagram of your circuit, specifying the components and their connections. This serves as a blueprint for the PCB layout.

Component Placement: Decide where to place components on the PCB. Components should be arranged for optimal signal flow and to minimize interference. Critical components may require specific placement for thermal or signal integrity reasons.

Routing: Once components are placed, the next step is routing, where you design the traces that connect the components. Consider factors like trace width, spacing, and layer stacking to ensure proper impedance and signal integrity.

Layer Stackup: Determine the number of PCB layers needed and their arrangement. Multilayer boards are used for complex circuits. The layer stackup affects signal integrity, power distribution, and heat dissipation.

Ground and Power Planes: Properly design ground and power planes to ensure stable voltage distribution and reduce electromagnetic interference. These planes provide a stable reference for signals and power.

Design for Manufacturing (DFM) and Design for Assembly (DFA): Consider DFM and DFA principles to ensure that the PCB can be manufactured and assembled efficiently and with high quality. Minimize the need for complex assembly processes.

Signal Integrity: Address signal integrity concerns by managing trace lengths, impedance matching, and minimizing signal reflections, crosstalk, and noise.

Thermal Management: Incorporate thermal considerations, including the placement of heat-generating components and the use of thermal vias or heatsinks to dissipate heat effectively.

Silkscreen and Labels: Add silkscreen markings to label components, connectors, and reference designators. This helps during assembly and troubleshooting.

Design Rule Check (DRC): Run a DRC to ensure that your design adheres to the manufacturing capabilities and constraints of your PCB fabrication service.

Gerber Files: Generate Gerber files, which are the industry-standard format for PCB manufacturing. These files include all the necessary information for the PCB fabrication process.

Testing and Simulation: Perform testing and simulation as needed to verify the functionality of your design before sending it for manufacturing.

Documentation: Create comprehensive documentation, including a Bill of Materials (BOM), assembly drawings, and any specific notes or instructions for assembly and testing.

Types of Mounting Technology

PCB Assembly: Printed Circuit Boards Assembly (PCBA) Process, pcb assembly process, electronic components, surface mount components

There are various mounting technologies used for printed circuit boards (PCBs), each with its own characteristics and applications. The primary types of mounting technologies include:

1. Surface Mount Technology (SMT): Components with small, flat leads or contacts are mounted directly onto the surface of the PCB.

  • Application: SMT is widely used for miniaturized electronic devices where space efficiency and high component density are crucial.
  • Advantages: Enables smaller PCB designs, facilitates automated assembly, and supports higher-density component placement.

2. Through-Hole Technology (THT): Components with wire leads are inserted into pre-drilled holes on the PCB and soldered on the opposite side.

  • Application: THT is suitable for larger, heavier components or those requiring strong mechanical connections.
  • Advantages: Offers robust mechanical strength and ease of manual assembly.

3. Mixed Technology: Combines both SMT and THT components on the same PCB.

  • Application: Used when a combination of small, surface-mounted components and larger, through-hole components is required.
  • Advantages: Provides versatility, allowing for the incorporation of different types of electronic components.

4. Chip-on-Board (COB): on Bare board, semiconductor chips are directly mounted onto the PCB substrate, and wire bonding or other methods create electrical connections.

  • Application: Commonly used in high-density, miniaturized electronic applications.
  • Advantages: Reduces the size of components and enhances thermal performance.

5. Ball Grid Array (BGA): Components have solder balls on the bottom that create a grid pattern for mounting directly onto the PCB.

  • Application: BGA packages are often used in applications requiring high pin counts and improved thermal performance, such as microprocessors and GPUs.
  • Advantages: Provides a compact and efficient way to mount components, particularly those with high pin densities.

6. Quad Flat Package (QFP): Square or rectangular components with leads extending from all four sides.

  • Application: Commonly used for integrated circuits and microcontrollers.
  • Advantages: Balances component density and ease of assembly.

7. Dual In-Line Package (DIP): Components with two parallel rows of leads extending from the outer layers of the package.

  • Application: Historically common for integrated circuits, now less common due to larger footprint.
  • Advantages: Allows for easy manual insertion and soldering.

The choice of mounting technology depends on factors such as the type and size of components, space constraints, manufacturing processes, and the specific requirements of the electronic device being produced.

Differences Between Printed Circuit Board Assemblies: SMT & THT and Mixed Technology

Printed Circuit Board Assemblies (PCBAs) involve the placement and soldering of electronic components onto a printed circuit board (PCB). The major differences between Surface Mount Technology (SMT), Through-Hole Technology (THT), and Mixed Technology assembly lie in the types of the soldering electronic components used, the assembly processes, and the characteristics of the resulting circuit boards.

Surface Mount Technology (SMT):

  • Components: SMT uses components with small, flat contacts or leads that are directly mounted onto the surface of the PCB.
  • Assembly Process: The assembly process involves applying solder paste to the PCB, placing components using pick-and-place machines, and reflow soldering to create the electrical connections.
  • Advantages: SMT is known for its space efficiency, allowing for higher component density on the PCB. It is well-suited for miniaturized and densely populated electronic devices.

Through-Hole Technology (THT):

  • Components: THT involves components with wire leads that are inserted into pre-drilled holes on the PCB, extending through the board.
  • Assembly Process: Components are manually or automatically inserted into the holes, and solder is applied on the opposite side to create electrical connections. Wave soldering is commonly used for THT assembly.
  • Advantages: THT provides strong mechanical connections and is suitable for larger, heavier components. It is often used for components requiring extra stability.

Mixed Technology Assembly:

  • Components: Mixed Technology assembly combines both SMT and THT components on the same PCB.
  • Assembly Process: The PCB may undergo SMT processes for surface-mounted components and THT processes for through-hole components.
  • Advantages: Mixed Technology allows for versatility in accommodating different types of electronic components on a single PCB. It is often used when a combination of smaller, surface-mounted components and larger, through-hole components is required.

Important Differences!

  1. SMT is characterized by components mounted directly on the surface, while THT involves components inserted through holes.
  2. SMT is more suitable for miniaturized and densely packed electronics, while THT provides stronger mechanical connections and is often used for larger components.
  3. Mixed Technology combines aspects of both SMT and THT to leverage the strengths of each method.
  4. The assembly processes for SMT and THT differ significantly, involving different soldering techniques (reflow for SMT, wave soldering for THT).
  5. SMT is often associated with automated assembly, while THT can involve more manual processes.

The choice between SMT, THT, or Mixed Technology depends on factors such as component types, space constraints, production volume, and the specific requirements of the electronic device being manufactured.

Applying Solder Paste Using Stencil

Applying solder paste to a printed circuit board (PCB) using a stencil is a crucial step in the surface mount technology (SMT) assembly process. The solder paste provides a medium for attaching surface mount components to the PCB before reflow soldering. Here is an overview of the process:

Stencil Design: The first step involves designing a stencil that matches the PCB layout. The stencil is thin layer typically made of stainless steel or other durable materials, and it contains openings (apertures) corresponding to the locations where solder paste needs to be applied on the PCB.

Alignment: Proper alignment of the stencil is crucial. The stencil is aligned with the PCB using alignment pins or other fixtures to ensure that the apertures match the corresponding pads on the PCB.

Cleaning and Preparation: The stencil should be clean and free from any residual solder paste from previous applications. It is common to use cleaning solvents and tools to ensure the stencil is in optimal condition.

Solder Paste Application: Solder paste, a mixture of tiny solder particles and flux, is applied to the stencil.

Squeegeeing: A squeegee, often a metal or rubber blade, is used to spread the solder paste evenly across the stencil. The squeegee is pressed against the stencil and moves across its surface, forcing the paste through the apertures onto the substrate material the PCB.

Solder Paste Inspection: After applying solder paste, it is essential to inspect the results. Automated inspection systems or visual checks may be used to ensure that the solder paste is accurately deposited, with the right volume and alignment.

Component Placement: Once the solder paste is applied, the PCB moves to the pick-and-place machine, where surface mount components are accurately placed on the pads coated with solder paste.

Reflow Soldering: The PCB with components and solder paste undergoes reflow soldering. In this process, the entire circuit assembly is subjected to elevated temperatures in a controlled environment. The solder paste melts, creating solder joints that secure the components to the PCB.

Post-Solder Inspection: After reflow soldering, the PCB undergoes post-solder inspection to ensure the quality of solder joints. Automated optical inspection (AOI) and X-ray inspection may be used to detect defects or issues with soldering.

Using a stencil for solder paste application ensures precision, consistency, and repeatability in the SMT assembly process. The proper application of solder paste is critical for achieving reliable solder joints and ensuring the functionality and performance of the electronic device.

Reflow Soldering

Reflow soldering is a widely used process in the surface mount technology (SMT) assembly of printed circuit boards (PCBs). It involves the controlled heating and cooling of the PCB to create solder joints between surface mount components and the PCB pads. This process is crucial for creating reliable electrical connections between components and the PCB. Here is an overview of the reflow soldering process:

  1. Application of Solder Paste: Before reflow soldering, solder paste is applied to the PCB using a stencil. The solder paste is a mixture of tiny solder particles and flux, which helps facilitate the soldering process.
  2. Component Placement: After applying the solder paste, surface mount components are accurately placed on the corresponding pads on the PCB. This is typically done using automated pick-and-place machines.
  3. Reflow Soldering Oven: The PCB with components and solder paste then goes through a reflow soldering oven. The oven has different heating zones, each with a specific temperature profile.
  4. Preheat Zone: The PCB enters the preheat zone, where the temperature gradually rises to a level that activates the flux in the solder paste. This helps remove any moisture and prepares the assembly for reflow.
  5. Ramp-Up Zone: In the ramp-up zone, the temperature is increased rapidly to reach the reflow temperature. This temperature is above the melting point of the solder alloy but below the melting point of the components.
  6. Reflow Zone: In the reflow zone, the temperature is maintained at the reflow temperature, causing the solder paste to melt. The molten solder forms a liquid phase, creating solder joints between the components and the PCB pads.
  7. Cooling Zone: The assembly then moves through the cooling zone, where the temperature is reduced to solidify the solder joints. This gradual cooling helps prevent thermal stress and ensures the formation of robust solder connections.
  8. Post-Reflow Inspection: After reflow soldering, the PCB undergoes post-solder inspection to check the quality of the solder joints. Automated optical inspection (AOI) and X-ray inspection may be used to detect defects or issues with soldering.

Reflow soldering offers several advantages, including high automation capabilities, precise control over the soldering process, and the ability to handle high component density and miniaturized PCB designs. It is a key technology in modern electronics manufacturing for producing reliable and consistent solder joints in surface mount assemblies.

PCB Fabrication Requirements

PCB (Printed Circuit Board) fabrication requirements encompass a set of specifications and criteria that define the design, materials, and manufacturing processes necessary for creating a functional and reliable PCB. These requirements are crucial for ensuring the proper functioning of electronic devices. Key aspects of PCB fabrication requirements include:

  1. Design Files: Complete and accurate design files, typically in Gerber format, containing information about the PCB layout, component placement, and routing.
  2. Layer Stackup: Specification of the layer stackup, detailing the arrangement and materials of the PCB layers. This includes the number of layers, copper thickness, and dielectric materials.
  3. Material Specifications: Clear specifications for the materials used in PCB fabrication, including the type of substrate (e.g., FR-4), copper foil thickness, solder mask type, and surface finish.
  4. Copper Weight: Specification of the amount of copper used, expressed in ounces per square foot (oz/ft²) or grams per square meter (g/m²).
  5. Minimum Trace and Space: Guidelines for the minimum allowable width of traces and the minimum spacing between them, ensuring proper electrical performance and avoiding signal integrity issues.
  6. Drill File: Information about the locations and sizes of drilled holes, including via holes and component mounting holes.
  7. Annular Ring Size: Specification of the minimum acceptable annular ring size, which is the copper pad’s width around a drilled hole.
  8. Solder Mask and Silkscreen: Requirements for the solder mask, specifying its color and coverage, as well as guidelines for the silkscreen layer, which includes component markings and other annotations.
  9. Surface Finish: Specification of the surface finish for exposed copper areas, such as HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling), ENIG (Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold), or other finishes.
  10. Controlled Impedance: If applicable, requirements for controlled impedance traces to maintain signal integrity in high-frequency applications.
  11. Tolerances and Quality Standards: Tolerances for dimensions, hole sizes, and other critical features, along with adherence to industry quality standards like IPC-A-600 for visual inspection.
  12. Testing Requirements: Guidelines for testing the finished PCBs, which may include electrical testing, functionality testing, and other quality assurance measures.

Adhering to well-defined PCB fabrication requirements is essential for achieving consistency, reliability, and performance in electronic devices. These requirements serve as a foundation for effective communication between designers and manufacturers, ensuring that the final product meets the desired specifications and quality standards.

Automated Placement of Electronic Components

There are at least 6 advantages to automatic placement of electronic components in assembly. They include precision and accuracy, high speed and efficiency, consistency, high component density, flexibility, and of course, reduced labor costs. Automated pick-and-place machines provide precise and accurate component placement, ensuring that components are aligned correctly on the PCB, which is critical for reliable solder joints. It is significantly faster than manual placement, leading to higher throughput in production. This increased speed contributes to overall efficiency in the assembly process. The consistency in component placement across multiple PCBs, reduces the likelihood of errors and variations in the assembly process. Automated machines can handle high component densities and fine-pitch components with ease, enabling the assembly of complex, miniaturized electronic devices. They can handle a wide range of component types and sizes, making them versatile for different PCB designs and electronic applications. And while initial setup and programming require skilled personnel, automated assembly reduces the need for manual labor in the component placement phase, resulting in potential cost savings over time.

Equally, the disadvantages of mixed assembly are considerable and include the initial cost, programming complexity, maintenance and downtime, limitations of components, lack of flexibility for prototyping, and environmental considerations. The upfront cost of acquiring and setting up automated assembly equipment can be significant, making it a substantial investment for smaller manufacturers or those with lower production volumes. Programming automated machines for specific PCB layouts and component types requires expertise and may be complex, particularly for intricate designs or frequent product changes. Automated equipment requires regular maintenance to ensure optimal performance. Downtime for maintenance and repairs can impact production schedules. Automated systems may face challenges when handling non-standard or irregularly shaped components, requiring additional manual intervention. In situations where rapid prototyping and frequent design changes are necessary, automated systems may be less flexible compared to manual assembly methods. Automated assembly processes can be sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, requiring controlled conditions to maintain optimal performance.

So, while automated component placement in PCB assembly offers significant advantages in terms of speed, precision, and efficiency, it comes with upfront costs, programming complexity, and considerations related to maintenance and flexibility. The decision to use automated placement depends on factors such as production volume, product complexity, and the overall goals of the manufacturing process.

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This or That!

Most of the time, we need a combination. So, the process isn’t always so black and white. We will look closer at the similarities and differences between the biggest assembly decisions.

Through-Hole versus Surface-Mount Assembly

Through-Hole Assembly (THA) and Surface Mount Technology (SMT) are two primary methods for assembling electronic components onto printed circuit boards (PCBs), and they differ in their approach to mounting and soldering components.

Through-Hole Assembly (THA):

In THA, electronic components have leads that are inserted into pre-drilled holes on the PCB. The leads extend through the board, and solder is applied on the opposite side to create electrical connections. THA is often associated with larger, bulkier components and is recognized for its mechanical strength. This method is well-suited for components like connectors, switches, and large capacitors, where the robustness of mechanical connections is essential. However, THA is generally less space-efficient than SMT, and the manual insertion process can be time-consuming.

Surface Mount Technology (SMT):

In SMT, electronic components have small, flat contacts or leads that are directly mounted onto the surface of the PCB. Solder paste is applied to the PCB, and the components are then placed using automated pick-and-place machines. The assembly is then subjected to a reflow soldering process, where the solder paste is melted, creating the electrical connections. SMT is widely adopted for its space-saving capabilities, allowing for higher component density and smaller PCBs. It is particularly suitable for miniaturized and high-density electronic devices. SMT is also more compatible with automated assembly processes, contributing to increased efficiency in high-volume production.

The Take Away:

The primary difference between THA and SMT lies in the mounting and soldering methods. THA relies on inserting component leads through holes and soldering on the opposite side, while SMT involves mounting components directly onto the PCB surface using solder paste and reflow soldering. THA is often associated with higher mechanical strength, making it suitable for certain applications with larger components. In contrast, SMT offers advantages in terms of space efficiency, automation, and suitability for smaller components.

In modern electronics manufacturing, a combination of both THA and SMT, known as mixed-technology assembly, is often used to leverage the benefits of each method for different types of components on the same PCB. The choice between THA and SMT depends on factors such as component size, space constraints, and the specific requirements of the electronic device being manufactured.

Manual Assembly versus Automated Assembly

Manual assembly and automated assembly represent two distinct approaches to the process of constructing electronic devices, each with its advantages and limitations.

Manual Assembly:

Manual assembly involves human operators handling and placing electronic components onto printed circuit boards (PCBs) and performing manual soldering and other assembly tasks. While manual assembly allows for flexibility and adaptability to various production needs, it has inherent limitations. The process is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and subject to variations in skill levels among operators. The potential for human error is higher, leading to inconsistencies in assembly quality. Additionally, manual assembly may not be cost-effective for high-volume production due to slower production rates and increased labor costs.

Automated Assembly:

Automated assembly, on the other hand, employs machines and robotic systems to perform various assembly tasks, such as component placement, soldering, and testing. Automated assembly processes offer significant advantages in terms of speed, precision, and repeatability. Automated systems can operate continuously without fatigue, leading to consistent quality and high production rates, making them well-suited for large-scale manufacturing. The use of automated assembly is particularly prevalent in industries where high precision and efficiency are critical, such as consumer electronics, automotive manufacturing, and telecommunications.

The Take Away:

The primary difference between manual and automated assembly lies in the level of human involvement and the degree of mechanization. Manual assembly offers flexibility and adaptability, making it suitable for prototyping, low-volume production, or situations where a high level of customization is required. However, it tends to be slower, less precise, and more prone to errors. Automated assembly excels in high-volume, mass production however, delivering speed, precision, and consistent quality. While initial setup costs for automated systems can be higher, they often result in long-term cost savings through increased efficiency and reduced labor costs.

In practice, a combination of manual and automated assembly, known as semi-automated assembly, is sometimes employed. This hybrid approach allows manufacturers to capitalize on the strengths of both methods, balancing flexibility and precision according to the specific needs of the production process and the nature of the electronic devices being manufactured. The choice between manual and automated assembly depends on factors such as production volume, product complexity, and overall cost considerations.

In-House versus Outsourced Assembly

In-house assembly and outsourced and assembly services represent two strategic approaches to the manufacturing process, each with distinct advantages and considerations.

In-House Assembly:

In-house assembly involves establishing and maintaining a dedicated manufacturing facility within the organization. This approach offers direct control over the entire production process, from design to assembly, providing a high level of flexibility and customization. In-house assembly is often favored when companies have specialized or proprietary technologies, require strict control over quality, or when manufacturing processes are closely tied to core competencies. However, in-house assembly can be capital-intensive, requiring significant investments in equipment, infrastructure, and skilled personnel. It also requires ongoing maintenance and adaptation to keep pace with technological advancements.

Outsourced Assembly:

Outsourced assembly involves contracting a third-party manufacturer (contract manufacturer or EMS provider) to handle the production of electronic devices. This approach offers several advantages, including cost savings, access to specialized expertise and resources, and flexibility in responding to fluctuations in production volume. Outsourcing allows companies to focus on their core competencies, such as product design and marketing, while leveraging the manufacturing capabilities of external partners. However, it requires careful management of the outsourcing relationship, as companies relinquish direct control over certain aspects of the manufacturing process. Effective communication, quality assurance, and intellectual property protection are critical considerations in outsourced assembly.

The Take Away:

The primary difference between in-house and outsourced assembly lies in the degree of control and ownership over the manufacturing process. In-house assembly provides maximum control and customization but demands significant investments and ongoing operational costs. Outsourced assembly, on the other hand, offers cost efficiencies, access to external expertise, and flexibility but requires effective collaboration and communication with the manufacturing partner.

The choice between in-house and outsourced assembly depends on various factors, including the nature of the products, production volume, required expertise, and the organization’s strategic goals. Some companies opt for a hybrid approach, combining in-house capabilities with strategic outsourcing for specific components or processes. Ultimately, the decision involves a careful evaluation of the trade-offs between control, cost, and flexibility to align with the company’s overall business strategy and objectives.


1. What is a PCB assembly?

A printed circuit board assembly is defined as the complete board after each component is soldered to a PCB. It includes: The conductive pathway carved on the laminated copper sheet used is placed on a non-conductive substrate to create the printed wiring board assembly.

2. What are the steps of PCB assembly?

PCB assembly is a complex process that involves several key steps to create functional electronic circuits. The assembly process typically begins with the procurement of components, including integrated circuits, resistors, capacitors, and connectors. The steps of PCB assembly include solder paste application, where a stencil is used to apply solder paste to the board. Then, components are placed on the PCB using automated machines, followed by a process of reflow soldering, which melts the solder to form secure connections. After this, inspection and testing are crucial to ensure the quality and functionality of the assembled PCB. This includes visual and automatic optical inspection only, automated optical inspection (AOI), and functional testing. Once the PCB passes quality checks, it is ready for final assembly into the product it’s intended for. Each step must be executed with precision to ensure the reliability and performance of the electronic device.

3. What does the PCB stand for?

Often used as PWM – printed circuit boards or printed wiring boards (PWB – printed circuit boards), printed circuit boards are the devices that link or “wire” components into a circuit.

4. What does PCB mean in motherboard?

A motherboard is the main PCB of computers. The motherboard serves to serve as the central network backbone of cellular networks and provides access to all components of an internal computer.

5. What is the NOC code for electronics assembler?

94201 – Electronic assembly, manufacture, inspection, test engineer.

6. What is assembling of electrical components?

Connect meter with circuit for measurement of current. Adapt this voltage measurer in parallel to the resistor for measuring potential differences. Connect the switching unit to the battery. Electric component assemblies are completed.

7. What is the role of an electronic assembly operator?

Electronic assembly makers are the manufacturers of electronic and functional test equipment. Electronics inspectors and testing technicians perform inspection and testing of electrical and electronic assemblies and sub-assemblies.

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